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Academic Research on Gender, Race, and Families

Prepared by Emily Martin and Lauren Cowan, ACLU Women’s Rights ProjectThe best way to narrow the scope of your search is to eliminate all those resources that are not academic. Instead of searching within mainstream search engines, you should be using scholarly research indexes. Examples of such an index with relevance to race, gender, and families are listed below:

Research Indexes

Proquest Research Library (T, U, P)
Gender Watch (F)
Wilson Select Plus (T, U, P)
Ingenta (P, A)
LexisNexis Academic (T, U, P)
Social Science Electronic Data Library (T, U, P)
Social Science Research Network (G, P, A)

F= Free
T= Free Trial
U= Available free with most university accounts
P= Pay for use
A= Free acess to article abstracts
G= Pay as you go (do not necessarily have to subscribe)

Once you have located a scholarly research index, you can search within it to find an academic journal that suits your quest’s needs. These academic journals are equipped with published articles that you can sift through to find the desired information. Some academic journals are free for the public’s use while others require a small fee. A small key shown above indicates the availability of the aforementioned research indices. The academic journals below will be particularly helpful when researching issues concerning race, gender, and families.

Helpful Academic Journals

American Journal of Sociology

American Sociological Review

Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal

Children and Youth Services Review

Electronic Journal of Sociology

Family Relations

Feminist Economics

Journal of Social Structure

Race and Society

Social Forces

Social Science Quarterly

Sociological Forum

Women’s Studies International Forum

For more recent research on Families, Women, and Children, See the "Resources" section at the back of every issue of Poverty & Race, PRRAC's bimonthly newsletter. Back issues are available here

Recent Research on Women, Children, and Families
By Topic

Child Care

Susanna Loeb- Stanford University (Economics)
Susanna Loeb, Bruce Fuller, Sharon Lynn Kagan, and Carroll Bidemi.
“Child Care in Poor Communities: Early Learning Effects of Type, Quality, and Stability.” Child Development. January. 75,1. 2004: 47-65.

P. Lindsey Chase- Lansdale- Northwestern University
P. Lindsey Chase-Lansdale, Rebekah Coley, and Christine P. Li-Grinning “Child Care in the Era of Welfare Reform: Quality, Choices, and Preferences.”
John Hopkins University: Welfare, Children, & Families.
Click here

Jennifer Mezey- Center for Law and Social Policy
Jennifer Mezey. “GAO Finds State Child Care Assistance Limits Disproportionately Impact Low-Income, Working, Non-TANF Families and Children.” June 4, 2003. CLASP.
Click here

Sheri Azer- Wheelock College (Childhood Development)
Sheri Azer, Sarah Lemoine, Gwen Morgan, et. al “Regulation of Child Care.” University of North Carolina’s Early Childhood Research and Policy Briefs. Vol 2, 1. 2002.

Natasha Lifton- New York University (Education)
Natasha Lifton. “The Human Cost of Waiting for Child Care: A Study.” December 1999. Children’s Aid Society.
Click here

Jean I. Layzer- ABT Associates, Inc. (Children and Families)
Jean I. Layzer, Alan Werner, et al. “National Study of Child Care for Low-Income Families: State and Community Substudy Interim Report.” November 2, 2000.
Click here

P.W. Newacheck- University of California (Health Policy Studies)
P.W. Newacheck, D.C. Hughes and J.J. Stoddard. “Children's access to primary care: Differences by race, income, and insurance status.” Pediatrics, 97(1), 1996: 26-32.

Child Development

Ann P. Kaiser- Vanderbilt University (Special Education)
Kaiser, Ann P, and Cathy Huaging Qi. “Behavior Problems of Preschool Children From Low-Income Families: Review of the Literature.” Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. 23, 4. 2003: 188-216.

Richard Johnson- Urban Institute
Richard Johnson and Melissa Favreault. “Economic Status in Later Life Among Women Who Raised Children Outside of Marriage.” Journal of Gerentology: Social Sciences 59B(6):S315-323.

Katherin Ross Phillips- The Urban Institute
Katherin Ross Phillips. “Parent Work and Child Well-Being in Low Income Families.” The Urban Institute: Assessing the New Federalism Project. June 25, 2002.
Click here

Miguel Ferguson- University of Texas (Social Work)
Miguel Ferguson, Gunnar Almgren and Greg Yamashiro. “Beyond Welfare or Work: Teen Mothers, Household Subsistence Strategies, and Child Development Outcomes.” Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare. 29, 3. 2002: 125-49.

Lucille Riedle- New Brunswick Advisory Council
Riedle, Lucille. “Growing Up Female In New Brunswick.” NB Advisory Council on the Status of Women: New Brunswick, 2001. (Canada)

Child Support/Protection/Services

Paula Roberts- Center for Law and Social Policy
Paula Roberts. “Child Support: An Important but Often Overlooked Issue for Low-Income Clients.” National Center on Poverty Law, 2001.
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Paul Legler- Policy Studies, Inc.
Paul Legler. “Low Income Fathers and Child Support: Starting Off on the Right Track.” January 30, 2003. Anne E. Casey Foundation.
Click here

Mark E. Courtney
Mark. E. Courtney et al. “Race and Child Welfare Services: Past Research and Future Directions.” Child Welfare, 75 (2). 1996: 99-137.

Dennette Derezotes- University of Illinois (Social Work)
Dennette Derezotes. “Examining Child Maltreatment and the Impact of Race in Receipt of Child Welfare Services in the United States.” Children and Family Research Center, 2001.
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Michelle Y. Green- Child Welfare League of America
Michelle Y. Green. “Minorities as Majorities: Disproportionality in Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice.” Children’s Voice Article. Nov 2002.
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Dorothy Roberts- Northwestern University School of Law
Dorothy Roberts. Shattered Bonds: The Color of Child Welfare. Basic Books, 2002.
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Candy Bullock- American University School of Law
Candy Bullock. “Low-Income Parents Victimized by Child Protective Services.” American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy, and the Law. Summer 2003 v11 i2 p1023-1053.

Ruth McRoy- Hunter College (Social Work)
Ruth McRoy. “Color of Child Welfare Policy: Racial Disparities in Child Welfare Services.” National Resource Center for Foster Care and Permanency Planning. April 29, 2002.
Click here

Dorothy E. Roberts- Northwestern University School of Law
Dorothy E. Roberts. “Racial Disproportionality in the U.S. Child Welfare System: Documentation, Research on Causes, and Promising Practices. Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2002.

Fred Doolittle- MDRC
Fred Doolittle and Suzanne Lynn. “Working With Low-Income Cases: Lessons for the Child Support Enforcement System From Parents’ Fair Share.” May 1998.
Click here

Domestic Violence

Janel M. Leone- Pennsylvania State University
Janel M. Leone, Michael P. Johnson, Catherine L. Cohan, Susan E. Lloyd. “Consequences of Male Partner Violence for Low Income Minority Women.” Journal of Marriage and Family. May 66, 2. 2004: 472.
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April Kaplan
April Kaplan. “Domestic Violence and Welfare Reform.” Welfare Information Network. Issue Notes. Vol 1, No. 8. 1997.
Click here

Catherine T. Kenney- NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund
Catherine T. Kenney and Karen R. Brown. “Report From the Front Lines – The Impact of Violence on Poor Women.” Legal Momentum, 1996.

OPDV- New York State
“Model Domestic Violence Policy- Child Welfare.”
Click here

Jane C. Murphy- Journal of Health Care, Law, and Policy
Jane C. Murphy and Margaret J. Potthast. “Domestic Violence, Substance Abuse, and Child Welfare: The Legal System’s Response.” Journal of Health Care Law & Policy, Fall 1999. Vol 3, 1: 88-126.

S. McMurty
S. McMurty and G. Lie. “Differential Exit Rate of Minority Children in Foster Care.” Social Work Research and Abstracts, 28 (1). 1992: 42-48.

Ariella Hyman- Clearinghouse Review
Ariella Hyman and Minouche Kandel. “TANF and Domestic Violence: Elements of an Effective Welfare Department Intervention.” Clearinghouse Review, May 2001, Vol 35, 1: 3-20.

Jessica Pearson- American Public Welfare Association
Jessica Pearson and Esther Ann Griswold. “Child Support Policies and Domestic Violence.” Public Welfare, 1997. 202-682-0100.

Leslie Kaufman- The New York Times
Leslie Kaufman. “Abused Mothers Keep Children in a Test of Rights and Safety.” The New York Times, Nov 28, 2003 pA1 col 05.

Jody Raphael- University of Michigan (Social Work)
Jody Raphael, "Domestic Violence and Welfare Receipt: Toward a New Feminist Theory
Of Welfare Dependency.” Harvard Women’s Law Journal. 1996. 773-342-5510.

Jody Raphael- University of Michigan (Social Work)
Jody Raphael and Richard M. Tolman. “Trapped by Poverty, Trapped by Abuse – New Evidence Documenting the Relationship Between Domestic Violence and Welfare.” Taylor Institute and the Center for Development on Poverty, Risk, and Mental Health. 1997. 773-342-5510.
Click here

Wendy Pollack- Poverty Law Project
Wendy Pollack. “Twice Victimized-Domestic Violence and Welfare Reform.” National Clearinghouse for Legal Services: July 1996.

Naomi Stern- National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty
“Housing Discrimination Against Abused Women.” National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty, Domestic Violence Project, 2004.

Marielsa Bernard- Maryland Circuit Court
Marielsa Bernard. “Domestic Violence’s Impact on Children.” The Maryland Bar Journal, May-June 2003 v36 i3 p10(8).

Family Structure

Dalton Conley- New York University (Sociology)
Dalton Conley. "Gender Stratification within Families," Center for Advanced Social Science Research, New York University, 2003.

Cheryl Katz- National League of Cities
Katz, Cheryl. “Strengthening Families in American Cities: Early Childhood Development.” National League of Cities: Institute for Youth, Education, and Families, 2003.

K. S. Hymowitz- Manhattan Institute
K. S. Hymowitz. “Is the Family Coming Back?” City Journal, Summer 2001.
Click here

Robin Jarret- University of Illinois (Human and Community Development)
Jarret, Robin. “Dynamic Dimensions of Family Structure in Low-income African American Families: Emergent Themes in Qualitative Research.” Journal of Comparative Family Studies. 30, 2. 1999: 177-87.

Manuel Gutierrez- OMG Center for Collaborative Learning
Manuel Gutierrez, Margaret Berkey, and Amanda Bergson-Schllock. “Strengthening Families to Promote Youth Development.” Anne E. Casey Foundation. December 2001.
Click here

Elaine Sorenson- The Urban Institute
“Obligating Dads: Helping Low-Income Non-Custodial Fathers Do More For Their Children.” March. Vol 2. 1999.
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Jacqueline Darroch Forrest- The Alan Guttmacher Institute
Jacqueline Darroch Forrest and Jennifer J. Frost
“The Family Planning Attitudes and Experiences of Low-Income Women.” Family Planning Perspectives Nov 28, 6. 1996.
Click here

Robert B. Hill- Institute for Urban Research
Hill, Robert B. “Understanding Black Family Functioning: a Holistic Perspective.” Journal of Comparative Family Studies. 29, 1. 1998: 15-25.

Mary Parke- Center for Law and Social Policy
Mary Parke. “Who Are Fragile Families and What Do We Know About Them?” January 2004, CLASP- Couples and Marriage Series.
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Cynthia Osborne- Princeton University (Population Research)
Cynthia Osborne. “The Relationship Between Family Structure and Mothering Behavior Within Race and Ethnic Groups.” Center for Research on Child Well-Being. May 2004.
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Immigrant Women

K. Chin
K. Chin. “Out of Town Brides: International Marriage and Wife Abuse Among Chinese Immigrants.” Journal of Comparative Family Studies. 1,1994: 53-69.

Lori Romeyn Sitowski- University of Minnesota School of Law
Lori Romeyn Sitowski. “Congress Giveth, Congress Taketh Away, Congress Fixeth Its Mistake? Assessing the Potential Impact of the Battered Immigrant Women Protection Act of 2000.” Law and Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice. Summer 2001, Vol 19, 2: 259-305.

Lisa Lowe- University of California (Comparative Literature)
Lisa Lowe. “Work, Immigration, Gender: New Subjects of Cultural Politics.” Social Justice, Fall 1998, Vol 25, 3: 31.

Chris Griffin- Welfare Law Center
Chris Griffin. “Immigrant Access to Public Benefits: Tennessee Immigrant Groups Help Create Comprehensive Policies to Ensure Equal Access to Medicaid, Food Stamps, and TANF.” Welfare News, April 2002.
Click here

Leighton Ku- Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
Leighton Ku and Shannon Blanely. “Health Coverage For Legal Immigrant Children.” CBPP. October 10, 2000.
Click here

Judith McFarlane- Tecas Women’s University (Nursing)
Judith McFarlane, Ann Malecha, et al. “Intimate Partner Violence Against Immigrant Women: Measuring the Effectiveness of Protection Orders.” American Journal of Family Law. Winter 2002, Vol 16, 4: 244.

K. Huisman – University of Vermont (Sociology)
K. Huisman. “Wife Beating In Asian American Communities: Identifying the Service Needs of an Overlooked Segment of the U.S. Population.” Violence Against Asian Women. Vol 2, 3. 1996: 260-259.

D. Jang- National Clearinghouse
D. Jang, D. Lee, and R. Morello-Frosch. “Domestic Violence in the Immigrant and Refugee Community: Responding to the Needs of Immigrant Women.” Response to the Victimization of Women and Children. 13, 4. 1990:

Marika Morris- CRIAW Research Committee
Marika Morris and Jennifer Sinnott. “Women’s Experience of Racism: How Gender and Race Interact for Immigrant and Refugee Women.” Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women. 2003.
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Maud Easter- University of Albany (Immigrant Women)
Maud Easter. “Building Bridges to Stop Violence Against Immigrant Women.”
March 2004, Voices for Change: Immigrant Women & State Policy.
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Dina Refki- University of Albany (Immigrant Women)
Dina Refki. “Working Together to Increase Immigrant Women’s Access to Reproductive Health Care.” Center for Women in Government & Civil Society, Downstate Regional Workshop. 2003.
Click here

Marriage Debate

Nancy Folbre- University of Massachusetts (Economics)
Nancy Folbre and Stephia Koontz. “Marriage, Poverty, and Public Policy.” Discussion paper for Council on Contemporary Families, 2002.
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Robin Toner- The New York Times
Robin Toner. “Welfare Chief Is Hoping to Promote Marriage.” The New York Times, Feb 19, 2002 pA1(L) col 02.

Mary Parke- Center for Law and Social Policy
Mary Parke. “Marriage- Related Provisions in Welfare Reauthorization Proposals.” March 1, 2004. CLASP.
Click here

Kim Campbell- Christian Science Monitor
“Welfare Reform Hasn’t Led to More Marriage—Yet.” Christian Science Monitor, June 23, 2004.
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Diana Spatz- Christian Science Monitor
Diana Spatz. “Bush Welfare Agenda: Married to a Myth.” Christian Science Monitor, February 24, 2004.
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Sanjib Gupta- University of Massachusetts (Gender Policy)
Sanjib Gupta, PJ Smock and W. Manning. "The Economic Advantage of Marriage and Disadvantage of Divorce for Women in the United States.” American Sociological Review,

Heidi Hartman- Journal of the National Council for Jewish Women
Heidi Hartman. “For Richer or Poorer: Can Marriage Cure Poverty?” NCJW Journal. New York: Summer 2002. Vol 25, 2: 15.


Ingrid Schoon- City College of London (Social Research)
Ingrid School, Samantha Parsons, and Amanda Sacker
“Socioeconomic Adversity, Educational Resilience, and Subsequent Levels of Adult Adaptation.” Journal of Adolescent Research 19, 4. 2004: 383-404.

Nancy Folbre- University of Massachusetts (Economics)
Nancy Folbre and M. V. Lee Badgett. "Job Gendering: Occupational Choice and the Marriage Market" Industrial Relations, 2003.
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M.V.Lee Badgett- University of Massachusetts (Economics)
M.V.Lee Badgett and Jeannette Lim. “Is Affirmative Action Working for Women?” Squaring Up: Policy Strategies to Raise Women’s Incomes in the United States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001.

Joya Misra- University of Massachusetts (Public Policy)
Misra, Joya. "African-American and Latina Women in the Labor Market: Implications for Policy." Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality: African American and Latina Women in the U.S. Labor Market. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1999.


Joya Misra- University of Massachusetts (Public Policy)
Misra, Joya. “Class, Race, and Gender and Theorizing Welfare States" Research in Political Sociology. 11, 2002: 19-52.

Westat- Chapin Hall Center for Children
“Assessing The Context of Permanency and Reunification in the Welfare System: The Role of Race in Parental Unification.” Department of Health and Human Services. Chapter 6.
Click here

Ronald B. Mincy- The Urban Institute
Ronald B. Mincy and Helen Oliver. “Age, Race, and Children’s Living Arrangements: Implications for TANF Reauthorization.” The Urban Institute: Assessing the New Federalism Project. April 30, 2003.
Click here

Lisa Grossman- National Governor’s Association
Lisa Grossman. “Child and Youth Well-Being under Welfare Reform: Recent Research.” January 2004.
Click here

Taryn Lindhorst- Journal of Race, Gender, and Class
Taryn Lindhorst and Ron Mancoske. “Race, Gender, and Class Inequities in Welfare Reform.” Race, Gender, & Class. New Orleans: Apr. 30, 2003. Vol 10, 1: 27.

Hirokazu Yoshikawa
Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Katherine A. Magnuson, Johannes M. Bos, and JoAnn Hsueh
“Effects of Welfare and Anti-Poverty Policies on Adult Economic and Middle-Childhood Outcomes Differ for the ‘Hardest to Employ’.” Working Paper No.12. July 2002.

The Urban Institute
“Families That Receive Government Benefits After Leaving Welfare Are Less Likely to Return.” September 11, 2003.
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Lynette Clemetson- The New York Times
Lynette Clemetson. “Study Finds Welfare Initiatives Do Not Address Needs of Immigrant Families.” New York Times, Nov 26, 2002 pA20(L) col 01.

Mary Kay Schleiter- University of Wisconsin (Anthropology)
Schleiter, Mary Kay. “U.S. Welfare Reform and Structural Adjustment Policies.” Anthropological Quarterly. 75, 4. 2002: 759-64.

Rebecca Gordon- Applied Research Center
Rebecca Gordon. “Cruel and Unusual: How Welfare ‘Reform’ Punishes Poor People.”
Applied Research Center, 2001.
Click here

Henry A. Freedman- National Center on Poverty Law
Henry A. Freedman. “The Welfare Advocate’s Challenge: Fighting Historic Racism in the New Welfare System.” Clearinghouse Review. May/June 2002.

Margaret Stapleton- National Center on Poverty Law
Margaret Stapleton. “The Unnecessary Tragedy of Fatherless Children: Welfare Reform’s Opportunities for Reversing Public Policies That Drove Low-Income Fathers Out of Their Children’s Lives.” Clearinghouse Review. Jan/Feb 1999.

William Rainford- University of California at Berkeley (Social Welfare)
William Rainford. “Paternalistic Regulation of the Poor: An Exploration of Families Who Have Been Sanctioned Under TANF.” National Center for Children in Poverty Research Forum, 2002.

Women’s Health

Lia-Hoagberg B- University of Minnesota (Public Health)
Lia-Hoagberg B, Rode P, Skovholt CJ, et. al. “Barriers and Motivators to Prenatal Care Among Low-income Women.” Social Science Medicine. 1990; 30(4):487-95.

Jackson, Aurora P.- Columbia University (Social Work)
Phyllis Fyanmfi, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Aurora P Jackson. “Associations Between Employment and Financial and Parental Stress in Low-income Single Black Mothers.” Women & Health. Old Westbury: 31, 1. 2001: 119.

Nancy A. Gonzales- Arizona State University (Psychology)
Carter, Sara, Julianna Deardorff, Larry Dunka, Nancy A. Gonzales, and Adam McCray.
“Preventing Poor Mental Health and School Dropout of Mexican American Adolescents Following the Transition to Junior High School.” Journal of Adolescent Research 19, 1 2004: 113-131.

Sanders-Philips, Kathy- Howard University (Medicine)
Sanders-Philips, Kathy. “Health Promotion Behavior in Low-income Black and Latino Women.” Women & Health. Old Westbury: Mar. 21, 2. 1994: 71.

H.M. Bauer- University of California (Family and Community Medicine)
H.M. Bauer, M.A. Rodriguez, S.S. Quiroga, and Y.G. Flores-Ortiz. “Barriers to Health Care for Abused Latina and Asian Immigrant Women.” Health Care Poor Underserved, 2000 Feb;11(1):33-44.
Click here

Blanche Mikhail- California State University (Nursing)
Mikhail, Blanche. “Prenatal Care Utilization Among Low-income African American Women Prenatal Care.” Journal of Community Health Nursing 17, 4. 2000: 235-246.

Cynthia J. Berg- Center for Disease Control
Berg, Cynthia, Lynne S. Wilcox, and Philip J. d'Almada. “The Prevalence of Socioeconomic and Behavioral Characteristics and Their Impact on Very Low Birth Weight in Black and White Infants in Georgia.” Maternal Child Health Journal. June 5, 2. 2001: 75-84.

V Haynatzka et al. – University of Nebraska Medical Center
V. Haynatzka et al. “Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Infant Mortality Rates—60 Largest US Cities: 1995-1998.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Project. Apr. 51, 15. 2001: 329-332, 343.
Click here

Other Topics

Mary Clare Lennon- Columbia University (Sociomedical Science)
Mary Clare Lennon, Lauren D. Applebaum, J. Lawrence Aber, and Katherine McCaskie
“Public Attitudes Toward Low-income Families and Children.” National Center for Children in Poverty. October 2003.

Annanya Bhattacharjee- New York University (Asian/Pacific American Studies)
Annanya Bhattacharjee. “Whose Safety? Women of Color and the Violence of Law Enforcement.” Committee on Women, Population and the Environment, Executive Summary, 2001.
Click here

Catherine Dunn Rappaport- ABT Associates, Inc. (Workforce Development)
Catherine Dunn Rappaport, JoAnn Jastzrab, and Stefanie Falzone. “Promising Practices for Helping Low-income Youth Obtain and Retain Jobs: A Guide for Practitioners.” September 2003.
Click here

Joseph M. Harkness- Johns Hopkins University (Social Policy)
Harkness, Joseph M. “Effects of Homeownership on Children: The Role of Neighborhood Characteristics and Family Income.” Economic Policy Review (Federal Reserve Bank of NY) 9, 2. 2003: 87-112.

Rebekah Levin- Center for Impact Research
Rebekah Levin, Lise McKean, Jody Raphael. “Pathways to and from Homelessness: Women and Children in Chicago Shelters.” Center for Impact Research, January 2004.
Click here

PRRAC Research Guide, 7/1/2004. Updated June 2006.
If you are aware of recent research on race, gender, and families that should be highlighted, please contact PRRAC so that it can be included on our website.

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